Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Animal & Plant Health Agency
Veterinary & Science Policy Advice Team – International Disease Monitoring
Updated Outbreak Assessment
Avian Influenza of high pathogenicity (H5N1, H5N2,and H5N9) in poultry in France 23 December 2015 Ref: VITT/1200 HPAI in France
Disease ReportSince the last update on the 16th December, more outbreaks in poultry have been reported as a result of increased surveillance in South West France (Ministère de l’Agriculture,
France, 2015; see map – not all outbreaks visible at this scale). To date there are 61 outbreaks of HPAI H5 (N1, N2 and N9), 54 of which have been reported to the EU Animal Disease Notification System. Six regions are affected –Dordogne (12 outbreaks); Landes (27 outbreaks); HauteVienne (1); Gers (9); Pyrenees Atlantique (10) and; Haute Pyrenees (2). The situation continues to evolve and the French Authorities have increased the size of restriction zones to cover more regions (hatched / grey area in map) and this has been adopted by the European Commission under special written procedure (SANTE/7135/2015). Movements of live birds from any control zone are subject to pre-movement testing, which has led to the detection of more infected flocks, but does provide some additional assurance http://agriculture.gouv.fr/la-liste-descommunes-de-la-zone-reglementee-influenza-aviaire
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For the complete report, click on
All HPAI H5N2 outbreaks in all affected States (Arkansas, California, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, and Wisconsin) are now final, closed, and resolved. The last positive detection of HPAI H5N2 in poultry was made on June 18, 2015. In addition to having no further HPAI detections, all States affected with HPAI (listed above) have met the following: – Mandatory surveillance in the State and control areas has been completed with negative results for HPAI. As a precaution, additional enhanced surveillance and procedures may continue in the State and area. – Depopulation of all infected premises has been completed and appropriate disposal was completed. – Cleaning and disinfection of the infected premises (including, but not limited to, outside areas, equipment, trucks, and other fomites). – No HPAI detections through wild bird surveillance have been made within the past 3 months. The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in conjunction with State Departments of Agriculture and Wildlife, and industry, continue to conduct thorough surveillance nationally for avian influenza virus through the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP), Live Bird Market System, and wild bird surveillance programs, as well as completely investigate any suspected avian influenza virus event. No HPAI has been detected in poultry over 5 months. Each outbreak has been closed after the requested three-month period of stamping out, disinfection and surveillance. The HPAI event in the United States is considered CLOSED. In accordance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code Chapter 10.4 (Articles 10.4.3 and 10.4.4), the United States has completely fulfilled the necessary actions and surveillance requirements to again self-declare itself free from HPAI.
For the complete OiE report, please click on the Link below:
|Date of start of the event
|Date of confirmation of the event
|Date submitted to OIE
|Reason for notification
||New strain of a listed disease
|Manifestation of disease
||Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
|Nature of diagnosis
||Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
|This event pertains to
||the whole country
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Although a universal code for the acoustic features of animal vocal communication calls may not exist, the thorough analysis of the distinctive acoustical features of vocalization categories is important not only to decipher the acoustical code for a specific species but also to understand the evolution of communication signals and the mechanisms used to produce and understand them.
Here, we recorded more than 8,000 examples of almost all the vocalizations of the domesticated Zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: vocalizations produced to establish contact, to form and maintain pair bonds, to sound an alarm, to communicate distress or to advertise hunger or aggressive intents. We characterized each vocalization type using complete representations that avoided any a priori assumptions on the acoustic code, as well as classical bioacoustics measures that could provide more intuitive interpretations. We then used these acoustical features to rigorously determine the potential information-bearing acoustical features for each vocalization type using both a novel regularized classifier and an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Vocalization categories are discriminated by the shape of their frequency spectrum and by their pitch saliency (noisy to tonal vocalizations) but not particularly by their fundamental frequency. Notably, the spectral shape of zebra finch vocalizations contains peaks or formants that vary systematically across categories and that would be generated by active control of both the vocal organ (source) and the upper vocal tract (filter).
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Universal mechanisms of sound production and control in birds and mammals
C.P.H Elemans, J.H. Rasmussen, C.T. Herbst, D.N. Düring, S.A. Zollinger, H. Brumm, K. Srivastava, N. Svane, M. Ding, O.N. Larsen, S.J. Sober & J.G. Švec
Nature Communications 6, Article number: 8978 doi:10.1038/ncomms9978
Received 24 March 2015 Accepted 22 October 2015 Published 27 November 2015
As animals vocalize, their vocal organ transforms motor commands into vocalizations for social communication. In birds, the physical mechanisms by which vocalizations are produced and controlled remain unresolved because of the extreme difficulty in obtaining in vivo measurements. Here, we introduce an ex vivo preparation of the avian vocal organ that allows simultaneous high-speed imaging, muscle stimulation and kinematic and acoustic analyses to reveal the mechanisms of vocal production in birds across a wide range of taxa. Remarkably, we show that all species tested employ the myoelastic-aerodynamic (MEAD) mechanism, the same mechanism used to produce human speech. Furthermore, we show substantial redundancy in the control of key vocal parameters ex vivo, suggesting that in vivo vocalizations may also not be specified by unique motor commands. We propose that such motor redundancy can aid vocal learning and is common to MEAD sound production across birds and mammals, including humans.
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